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Lí do băng đảng mafia xăm kín toàn thân

Ẩn sau mỗi hình xăm là một ý nghĩa riêng và điều quan trọng hơn, hình xăm khiến những băng nhóm tội phạm gắn kết không thể tách rời.


Thành viên băng nhóm Mara 18 với hình xăm trên mặt.

Những băng nhóm tội phạm như Mara Salvatrucha ở El Salvador đã truyền bá ảnh hưởng của mình tới Tây bán cầu và một trong những dấu hiệu rõ ràng nhất để nhận ra chúng là hình xăm toàn cơ thể. Mara Salvatrucha hay MS-13 là một băng đảng tội phạm quốc tế khởi nguồn từ Los Angeles, Mỹ và lan ra toàn Canada và Trung Nam Mỹ.

Các mẫu hoa văn hình xăm là khác nhau, giúp phân biệt từng cá nhân và băng nhóm nhưng có một lí do quan trọng hơn vì sao những tên mafia thích xăm mình đến vậy: lí do kinh tế.

“Có một nguyên nhân về kinh tế sâu xa cho những hình xăm này: chúng khiến những kẻ xăm mình dễ dàng bị các băng đảng quản lý”, Tom Wainwright, tác giả cuốn “Nền kinh tế ma túy” và cựu phóng viên tạp chí Economist thường trú ở Mexico City, trả lời Business Insider.


Thành viên băng nhóm “Đường phố 18” khoe hình xăm ở nhà tù Izalco năm 2012.

Tom nói: “Nếu bạn nhìn thấy những băng nhóm này ở El Salvador, thường là hình xăm kín từ đầu tới chân, việc tìm một công việc để hoàn lương cho những kẻ xã hội đen hầu như là bất khả”.

Băng nhóm Mara Salvatrucha, thường được gọi là MS-13 là những kẻ nổi tiếng vì hình xăm khắp thân mình.

Nhà tù ở El Salvador và Honduras, những quốc gia bạo lực nhất hành tinh là nơi MS-13 bị giam giữ nhiều nhất. Những hình xăm vằn vện trên người thể hiện lòng trung thành tuyệt đối của chúng dành cho chỉ huy. Kẻ thù chính của nhóm MS-13 là băng nhóm Barrio 18.

Hình xăm với người ngoại đạo là điều khó hiểu nhưng với những kẻ trong băng nhóm, mỗi hình xăm có một ý nghĩa riêng biệt. Chúng giúp nhận diện thành viên và ngăn ngừa phản bội để chạy sang băng nhóm khác.


Thành viên băng nhóm MS-13

“Những kẻ xăm kín thân không thể tìm việc ở nơi nào khác cũng như không thể đổi băng nhóm”, Tom chia sẻ. “Một khi đã tham gia vào băng nhóm buôn bán ma túy, việc rời bỏ là không thể. Điều này cũng giúp việc quản lý các thành viên dễ hơn và chi phí cũng rẻ hơn”.

Khi những băng nhóm tội phạm có mặt ở khu vực truy quét mạnh tay mafia, chẳng hạn như ngoại ô Washington D.C thì hình xăm không còn nhiều ý nghĩa. Các chương trình xóa bỏ hình xăm đã được triển khai với những nỗ lực từ chính phủ và cộng đồng nhằm giúp những kẻ từng một thời nhúng chàm được hoàn lương.


Cá chép là hình tượng thường được các yakuza Nhật Bản xăm lên lưng.

Tuy nhiên với băng nhóm MS-13, hình xăm là tất cả và sự trung thành với hình xăm là điều không thể thay đổi. Tom nói rằng một nguyên tắc bất di bất dịch để gia nhập những băng đảng ở El Salvador hoặc yakuza ở Nhật là phải có hình xăm. Nếu không xăm thì sẽ không thể là một thành viên.

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