Thân phận kỹ nữ thời xưa (P1): Khổ luyện như gái làng chơi cao cấp ở Hàn Quốc

Họ là những kỹ nữ cô độc, không có bến đỗ, không có điểm dừng, luôn khắc khoải niềm đau về cuộc đời.

Gisaeng là tên gọi của các kỹ nữ thời xưa ở Hàn Quốc. Họ là người có vị trí thấp hèn trong xã hội và phải chịu những đạo luật vô cùng hà khắc.

Họ chính xác chỉ là những người mua vui chứ không được coi trọng và trở thành nét văn hóa như geisha ở Nhật Bản. Tuy vậy, Gisaeng cũng phải trải qua quá trình rèn luyện trường lớp từ khi còn nhỏ.

Thời đại Chonshu của Triều Tiên, Gisaeng không chỉ là những người biết rót rượu phục vụ nam giới mà còn bán dâm khi được yêu cầu.

Vì thế không giống như loại hình Geisha của Nhật chuyên làm vui lòng khách nam giới bằng các hình thức nghệ thuật lành mạnh, cao cấp thì các Gisaeng đôi khi phải bán mình và chấp nhận đau khổ suốt cuộc đời.

Môi trường làm việc của các kỹ nữ bắt đầu từ những quán trà mọc lên bên cạnh những đền chùa miếu mạo.

Và các cô gái chính là chiêu thu hút khách đến với quán. Dần dần loại hình này được mở rộng sang các loại hình khác như quán rượu và các kỹ viện.

Lúc đầu các Gisaeng chủ yếu phục vụ cho tầng lớp bình dân, về sau họ phục vụ cho cả tầng lớp thương nhân, thậm chí là cả giai cấp thống trị ở thời điểm đó.

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Tranh vẽ kỹ nữ Hàn Quốc thời xưa.

Gisaeng và nỗi khổ luyện không tên

Để trở thành một gisaeng thực thụ, thông thường những bé gái ngay từ tuổi khi còn nhỏ đã được gia đình gửi vào các trường đào tạo gisaeng.

Ở đây họ phải học rất nhiều thứ, từ ngâm thơ đọc sách kể chuyện, múa cổ điển, hát các bài ca truyền thống, chơi đàn gayageum, geomungo và làm thơ sijo- những loại hình văn hóa riêng của Triều Tiên.

Ngoài ra các gisaeng cũng phải học, chơi trống, trà đạo, thư pháp, trò chuyện, trang điểm … cho tới cách đi đứng yểu điệu, cách cúi người khi chào, cách tiếp rượu…

Mỗi geisaeng đều phải khổ luyện để có thể trở thành một kỹ nữ tài năng. Bởi không chỉ cần có sắc đẹp, họ cần phải có tài thì mới mong tồn tại được trong xã hội Triều Tiên khi xưa.

Vì thế họ là một bậc thầy về việc giữ gìn sức khỏe, chăm sóc sắc đẹp và kiên trì trong luyện tập đến mức khó tin.

Qua quá trình đào tạo gian khổ, cuối cùng họ trở thành loại người có văn hóa ứng xử lịch sự duyên dáng, khả năng giao tiếp vô cùng tự nhiên và có sức hấp dẫn nam giới.

Sau quá trình khổ luyện vài năm, các Gisaeng sẽ được gửi tới các kỹ viện để phục vụ khách.

Hwang Jini – kỹ nữ huyền thoại của xứ sở kim chi

Hwang Jini không chỉ là một người con gái rót rượu cho các quý ngài, hay một cô gái mua vui bán thân cho khách mà còn là một hình ảnh thu nhỏ của một Gisaeng lý tưởng: Năng khiếu thơ ca, nghệ thuật viết chữ đẹp và hội họa.

Điểm nổi bật nhất của Gisaeng này chính là ở chỗ mặc dù cô là một đứa con hoang nhưng muốn khẳng định mình leo lên nấc thang cao nhất trong xã hội có tôn ti trật tự nghiêm ngặt của triều đại Chosun ngày ấy.

geisha

Tạo hình của Hwang Jini trong một bộ phim của Hàn Quốc.

Hwang Jini (1520 – 1560) còn được biết đến với tên gisaeng Myung Wol, là kỹ nữ huyền thoại của triều đại Chosun, sống trong thời trị vì của vua Jung Jong.

Cô nổi tiếng với vẻ đẹp hiếm có, trí thông minh và sự hiểu biết hơn người.

Mặc dù tuổi thơ cũng như ngày sinh và ngày mất của Hwang Jini không được biết đến, nhưng các tư liệu hiếm hoi ghi chép về cuộc đời cô cho rằng, cô là con gái của một quý tộc ở Gaesung; nhưng cũng có thông tin nói cô là con của người kỹ nữ mù tên Hyun Hak Geum, nổi tiếng với tài chơi đàn gayageum.

Mẹ của Hwang Jini vì không muốn con gái lặp lại cuộc đời đầy đau khổ của mình nên đã giao cô cho một vị sư già sống ở ngôi chùa xa xôi trên núi Sunggeo, trông nom.

Nhưng định mệnh của Hwang Jini thì không thể thay đổi. Một ngày kia, cô bé Hwang Jini đi ngang qua một tiệc rượu đình đám có gisaeng hát múa giúp vui.

Cô bị mê mẩn bởi vẻ đẹp của các gisaeng và những nhạc cụ tao nhã.

Đêm đó, Hwang Jini không tài nào chợp mắt được. Ngày hôm sau, cô chạy trốn khỏi ngôi chùa và đi đến một trường đào tạo gisaeng.

Lúc đó Hwang Jini đã 7 tuổi, quá tuổi để nhập học trường gisaeng, nhưng nhiệt huyết và tình yêu vô bờ dành cho những môn nghệ thuật cô yêu thích đã giúp cô trở thành một trong những gisaeng trẻ con giỏi nhất trường Songdo.

geisha2

Một cảnh quay trong bộ phim về kỹ nữ nổi tiếng.

Hwang Jini sau đó có chuyện tình yêu với chàng trai Kim Eun Ho, con trai của một nhà quý tộc nhưng lại bị gia đình nhà trai ngăn cản.

Eun Ho đã chọn cái chết để bảo vệ tình yêu trọn vẹn của đời mình.

Trong cuộc đời, cô có không ít những người đàn ông học thức và địa vị cao ghé qua, nhưng sau đó họ đều ra đi và cuộc đời của Jini mãi là cuộc đời của một kỹ nữ cô độc, không có bến đỗ, không có điểm dừng giống như những kỹ nữ xinh đẹp mà đa đoan khác…

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