Những khác biệt ‘một trời một vực’ giữa đặc nhiệm Nga, Mỹ

Các lực lượng đặc nhiệm của Nga và Mỹ chuyên nghiệp, hoạt động có hiệu quả và đông vào loại bậc nhất trên thế giới nhưng cả hai có rất nhiều sự khác biệt.

 Đặc nhiệm Nga và Mỹ có nhiều điểm khác biệt.

1. Phương châm

Theo tờ De Oppresso, đặc nhiệm Mỹ có nhiệm vụ chiến đấu ở cả nước ngoài. Trong khi đó, vấn đề mà đặc nhiệm Nga hướng tới là các hoạt động chiến sự, trinh sát, chống khủng bố, tìm kiếm cứu nạn, tham gia hoạt động nhân đạo, giữ gìn hòa bình, rà phá bom mìn, chống buôn ma túy. Vì thế có thể gọi lính đặc nhiệm Nga là “biệt kích” theo đúng nghĩa chứ không phải “xuất khẩu chiến tranh” như cách ám chỉ đặc nhiệm Mỹ.

2. Lịch sử ra đời

Đặc nhiệm Mỹ ra đời vào năm 1952 trên cơ sở một nhóm nhân viên đặc biệt được tạo ra trong suốt thời Thế Chiến 2. Còn đặc nhiệm Nga ra đời năm 1950 trên cơ sở một quyết định của Bộ Chiến tranh Liên Xô với mục đích hoạt động luồn sâu trong vùng địch.

Lực lượng đặc nhiệm Mỹ có mũ nồi màu xanh đậm, còn mũ của đặc nhiệm Nga phụ thuộc vào loại đơn vị mà họ được giao là thuộc về Bộ Nội vụ, Bộ Quốc phòng, An ninh Liên Bang, hay SVR, GRU, hay thuộc Kiểm soát Ma túy Liên bang và thậm chí cả Bộ Tình trạng Khẩn cấp.3. Quân phục

Nhung khac biet 'mot troi mot vuc' giua dac nhiem Nga, My hinh anh 3

4. Sự quảng bá

Lực lượng đặc nhiệm Mỹ xuất hiện trong rất nhiều bộ phim và được mô phỏng trong nhiều trò chơi trên máy tính, ví dụ như Operation Flashpoint. Chỉ 20% ngân sách dành cho đặc nhiệm Mỹ nhưng lại có hàng triệu USD được tiêu vào việc “quảng bá” để gia tăng hình ảnh lực lượng này trên thế giới.


Ngược lại, toàn bộ ngân sách của đặc nhiệm Nga chỉ dành cho việc đào tạo chiến đấu cho các binh sĩ. Nếu có chiếu phim về đặc nhiệm Nga thì đó là khoản kinh phí phụ thêm.

5. Ngân sách

Đặc nhiệm Mỹ lớn mạnh dưới thời Tổng thống Mỹ John Fitzgerald Kennedy. Vào năm 1961, Tổng thống Kennedy đã ra lệnh cho nhà nước phải gia tăng đội quân mũ xanh và chuẩn bị cho họ phù hợp với cái gọi là chiến tranh du kích.


6. Sử dụng chiến tranh tâm lý

Theo ông Kennedy, chiến tranh hiện đại là những cuộc chiến, phá hoại, phục kích, xâm nhập và du kích. Vị tổng thống này tuyên bố Mỹ cần phải có được các đơn vị như vậy để tiến hành hoạt động du kích ở bất kỳ đâu trên thế giới. Kể từ đó, chi phí cho đặc nhiệm giống như một điểm không thể chạm tới trong ngân sách quốc phòng của Mỹ.

Theo lý thuyết của Kennedy, lực lượng mũ nồi xanh xuất hiện trước tiên phải là một đơn vị thực hiện chiến tranh tâm lý, khai thác vào những truyền thống và đặc điểm khác biệt nhau về mặt tâm lý và văn hóa của những nhóm dân tộc khác nhau.

Trong cuộc chiến tranh ở Việt Nam và châu Phi trước đây, lực lượng này đã bắt đầu hoạt động với vai trò là các gián điệp, cố vấn quân sự và hiện nay dấu vết của “mũ nồi xanh” được cho là vẫn có ở khắp nơi trên thế giới.

 

7. Cấu trúc

Người Mỹ luôn xem các chiến sĩ thuộc đặc nhiệm của họ thuộc vào hàng tốt nhất trên thế giới. Song điều này rất khó để có thể kết luận. Bởi vì hầu hết hoạt động của các lực lượng đặc nhiệm được quảng cáo công khai nhưng lại mọi người không hiểu đó là những đơn vị đặc nhiệm nào của lực lượng vũ trang Mỹ.

Còn cấu trúc các đơn vị đặc nhiệm của Liên bang Nga thường được công bố công khai trên báo chí.


8. Gánh nặng tài chính

Sau khi triệt phá được trùm khủng bố bin Laden, người Mỹ rất tự hào về “những chú sư tử biển” và những đơn vị đặc nhiệm khác. Nhưng trong khi các công dân Mỹ rất tự hào về những sĩ quan chỉ huy, chi phí cho Bộ tác chiến Đặc biệt (CSR), bao gồm cả đơn vị Rangers, không ngừng gia tăng, khiến ngân sách quốc phòng cũng phải cắt giảm.


9. Tấn công và tự vệ

Hiện CSR có khoảng 70 nhân lực, bên cạnh đó còn có nhiều đơn vị đặc biệt khác cũng không kém phần quan trọng như Sea Lions, Green Berets và Marine snipers.

Đặc nhiệm Mỹ được cho là hướng tới xu hướng tấn công và cần mở rộng lực lượng trên thế giới để hỗ trợ tái cơ cấu nền kinh tế, trong khi đó đặc nhiệm Nga được cho là theo học thuyết “thuần túy phòng vệ”.

Nhung khac biet 'mot troi mot vuc' giua dac nhiem Nga, My hinh anh 9

Theo Vân Long/Dân Việt

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