Mafia gốc Italy thống trị “thế giới ngầm” ở nước Mỹ

Mafia Mỹ có nguồn gốc từ Mafia Sicily và nổi lên ở ven biển miền đông nước Mỹ trong thế kỷ 19 theo làn sóng nhập cư của người Italy.
Mafia gốc Italy thống trị các tổ chức tội phạm ở nước Mỹ. Nó duy trì các hoạt động phạm tội ở hầu hết các thành phố lớn như Chicago và New York,  các thành phố ở vùng đông bắc và nhiều vùng khác như Philadelphia, Las Vegas, New Orleans… Mafia đã đi vào nền văn hoá Mỹ – được dựng thành phim, truyền hình, quảng cáo thương mại và trò chơi điện tử.

Mafia gốc Italy thống trị “thế giới ngầm” ở nước Mỹ - Ảnh 1

Mafia gốc Italy thống trị “thế giới ngầm” ở nước Mỹ
Năm 1986, theo báo cáo của chính phủ Mỹ, ước tính có khoảng 1700 tổ chức Cosa Nostra với hàng ngàn thành viên của chúng. Báo cáo cũng chỉ ra rằng, Mafia Mỹ gốc Italy là tổ chức tội phạm lớn nhất nước Mỹ và tiếp tục thống lĩnh nghiệp đoàn tội phạm Mỹ.
Cosa Nostra hoạt động mạnh nhất ở khu vực New York, Philadelphia, New England, Detroit và Chicago. Tổng cộng có tới 26 “gia đình” Cosa Nostra trên toàn nước Mỹ.
Lịch sử hình thành
Các nhóm Mafia xuất hiện và hoạt động đầu tiên là xung quanh khu vực thành phố New York, ban đầu từ các khu vực nghèo khó của người Do Thái láng giềng, dần dần biến thành những tổ chức tội phạm quốc tế. Mafia Mỹ gốc Italy bắt đầu từ La Mano Nera (bàn tay đen), tống tiền những người Italy và các cộng đồng nhập cư khác xung quanh thành phố New York. Khi những băng tội phạm Sicily nhập cư vào Mỹ, chúng hoạt động phạm pháp dưới dạng cho vay nặng lãi, mại dâm, ma túy, buôn rượu lậu, cướp giật, bắt cóc, giết người.
Từ những năm 1910 đến những năm 1920, có 5 băng đảng Mafia Sicily hoạt động ở thành phố New York.
Salvatore Maranzano là thủ lĩnh đầu tiên của Mafia Mỹ. Do tự ý giết người nên 6 tháng sau Charles “Lucky” Luciano trở thành thủ lĩnh mới. Maranzano ban hành ra một đạo luật chỉ đạo cho tổ chức này; hình thành nên cơ cấu các gia đình và giải quyết xung đột. Luciano thiết lập  hội đồng để điều hành các hoạt động của tổ chức. Hội đồng bao gồm ông chủ của 6-7 gia đình Mafia.

Mafia gốc Italy thống trị “thế giới ngầm” ở nước Mỹ - Ảnh 2

Luciano là người đã “lập lại trật tự” cho các băng nhóm tội phạm trên toàn đất Mỹ.

Chính Luciano là người đã “lập lại trật tự” cho tất cả các băng nhóm tội phạm trên toàn đất Mỹ. Cấu trúc mà hắn đặt ra cho mỗi gia tộc tội phạm – cao nhất là ông trùm (boss), tiếp theo là trợ lý (underboss), cố vấn (consigliere), trưởng nhóm (capo) và cuối cùng là “lính” (soldier) – đã giúp tổ chức Mafia Mỹ gốc Italy trở thành phần chủ chốt, đặc trưng trong thế giới ngầm.
Sau nhiều cuộc chiến, 5 “gia đình” đã chia nhau kiểm soát địa phận New York. Đó là là gia đình Bonanno, gia đình Colombo, gia đình Gambino, gia đình Genovese và gia đình Lucchese. Các gia đình nay đã tổ chức một hội nghị ngầm với những băng đảng khét tiếng khác như Joe Porrello ở Cleveland và Al Capone.

Mafia gốc Italy thống trị “thế giới ngầm” ở nước Mỹ - Ảnh 3

Joseph Valachi là người của Cosa Nostra Mỹ đầu tiên cung cấp những thông tin bên trong của tổ chức Mafia Mỹ

Năm 1963, Joseph Valachi là người của Cosa Nostra Mỹ đầu tiên cung cấp những thông tin bên trong của tổ chức Mafia Mỹ. Được FBI trưng dụng, Valachi cung cấp tên tuổi, cấu trúc, quyền lực, luật lệ, lời thề và thành viên của tổ chức này. Tất cả mọi điều đó còn được giữ kín cho đến mãi sau này.
Mafia Mỹ đang lụi tàn?
Ngày nay, Cosa Nostra dính líu đến hầu hết các lĩnh vực hoạt động bất hợp pháp ở Mỹ. Nó bao gồm các lĩnh vực như giết người, tống tiền, buôn ma túy, tham nhũng, đánh bạc, thâm nhập vào các lĩnh vực kinh doanh hợp pháp, nhập cư lao động bất hợp pháp, cho vay nặng lãi, mại dâm, khiêu dâm, gian lận thuế và đặc biệt là lĩnh vực cổ phiếu.
Tuy nhiên, bị tổn thất khá lớn, Mafia Mỹ gốc Italy đang, thu hẹp phạm vi hoạt động chỉ còn xoay quanh 5 “gia đình” ở Chicago và thành phố New York.
Trong vòng 8 năm qua, những kẻ được coi là ông trùm chỉ huy cả 5 “gia đình”  tộc tội phạm nói trên đều bị kết án và cầm tù. Ít nhất 64 kẻ tình nghi là thành viên hoặc cộng tác viên của Cosa Nostra “đang chờ” ngày xuất hiện trước vòng móng ngựa.
Trong khi đó, luật im lặng Omertà trong giới Mafia không còn nhiều hiệu lực như trước.
Từ năm 2002, ít nhất hàng chục tay anh chị đã cung khai ra đồng đảng của mình để đổi lấy sự khoan hồng, để không phải nhận những án tù “mọt gông”.

Mafia gốc Italy thống trị “thế giới ngầm” ở nước Mỹ - Ảnh 4

Salvatore Gravano đã làm chứng trước toà đưa “John Gotti” cái án chung thân
Trước đó, năm 1992, Salvatore Gravano – “Sammy bò mộng” – cũng đã quay lưng lại bố già John Gotti. Gravano đã làm chứng trước toà đưa ông trùm tới cái án chung thân. Nhờ đó, mặc dù cố ý giết 19 người trong suốt thời gian là thành viên của “gia đình” Gambino, Gravano chỉ bị kết án vì một tội rất nhẹ. Sau gần 5 năm ngồi tù, Gravano được phóng thích và là đối tượng trong chương trình bảo vệ nhân chứng của chính phủ liên bang.
Minh Đức (tổng hợp)
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