Ma túy đá: nguy cơ loạn thần, mất trí nhớ

Loại ma túy mà giới trẻ ngày nay sử dụng nhiều là heroin và hàng đá. Với dân chơi thì việc “đập đá”, “phá ke” mới thể hiện “đẳng cấp” (!?). Chính lối suy nghĩ trên đẩy nhiều người sử dụng ma túy đá đến nguy cơ loạn thần, mất trí nhớ (còn gọi là ngáo đá). Theo các tài liệu chuyên ngành thì thành phần chính của ma túy đá chính là methamphetamine (meth) – một chất kích thích tâm thần loại mạnh, nếu sử dụng lâu dài sẽ có nguy cơ mất trí.

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Nhiều năm qua, Trung tâm điều dưỡng và cai nghiện ma túy Thanh Đa (TPHCM) trở thành “địa chỉ vàng” để người nghiện và thân nhân người nghiện chọn làm nơi gởi gắm niềm tin. Hiện con số học viên đến cai nghiện tại đây lên hơn 10.000 lượt. Từ trung tâm này, nhiều bạn trẻ đã trở về hội nhập cộng đồng với thể chất và tinh thần khỏe mạnh. Đây là kết quả của cả quá trình đấu tranh và nỗ lực không mệt mỏi của bản thân học viên và tập thể cán bộ, công nhân viên.

Hình ảnh não bị tổn thương sau khi sử dụng ma túy

 Trao đổi về cái khó trong công tác cai nghiện hiện nay, bác sĩ Nguyễn Hữu Khánh Duy – Giám đốc trung tâm – cho biết: “Tình trạng học viên cai nghiện phải chuyển sang điều trị tâm thần tăng cao trong thời gian gần đây. Nguyên nhân chính là do các bạn trẻ nghiện ma túy đá”. Để chứng minh điều mình nói, bác sĩ Duy cho chúng tôi xem hình ảnh tổn thương não bộ giữa người sử dụng heroin, ma túy đá và người bình thường khác nhau như thế nào. Bác sĩ Duy cũng nêu những khó khăn trong việc điều trị phục hồi nhận thức, hành vi, nhân cách, giải quyết các chấn thương tâm lý, mâu thuẫn nội tâm cho người nghiện. Trong đó, phục hồi nhân cách với người nghiện heroin vất vả một thì với người nghiện hàng đá vất vả hơn gấp nhiều lần.

Liên quan đến vấn đề tác hại của ma túy đá và việc cai nghiện ma túy, Trung tâm sức khỏe tâm thần (Center Mental Health) của thạc sĩ, bác sĩ Phan Hữu Uân đưa ra nhận định: sự độc hại của ma túy đá gấp 500 lần so với heroin. Sử dụng ma túy đá lâu dài sẽ dẫn đến tình trạng mất trí nhớ. Đồng quan điểm về tác hại của ma túy đá với người nghiện, bác sĩ Trần Thị Hồng Thu – Bệnh viện tâm thần ban ngày Mai Hương – phân tích: “Ma túy đá đặt cơ thể vào tình trạng hoạt động tăng tốc và có thể làm tổn thương các bộ phận cơ thể gây đột quỵ, suy gan hoặc suy tim. Người bệnh gần như luôn luôn bị mất kiểm soát và có thể dẫn đến những hành vi cực kỳ nguy hiểm. Ma túy đá “đốt cháy” các hệ thống sản xuất dopamine và norepinephrine của não bộ, làm cho người sử dụng không thể cảm thấy bất kỳ một thứ niềm vui nào hết, trừ khi họ sử dụng ma túy đá. Ma túy đá có thể biến một người có khả năng ăn nói lưu loát hoàn toàn bình thường trở thành một người nói lắp, hoang tưởng, điên dại trong một vài tuần rồi kết thúc bằng tình trạng mất trí nhớ nặng dần”.

Gần đây, chúng ta bắt gặp ngày càng nhiều các trường hợp sau khi sử dụng ma túy, con nghiện lên cơn “ngáo đá” làm náo loạn cả xóm phố hoặc vác dao đòi chém nhiều người. “Ngáo đá” chính là tình trạng loạn thần sau một thời gian sử dụng ma túy đá. Người bệnh nói chuyện với những người không có thật, hoang tưởng nặng với thái độ nghi ngờ, luôn sợ có người theo dõi làm hại. Các biểu hiện điển hình khác bao gồm cảm giác có côn trùng bò dưới da hoặc cảm giác hãi hùng vì sợ ai đó truy đuổi hay rình rập. Loạn thần do nghiện ma túy đá có thể dẫn đến nhiều ngày không ngủ. Người nghiện nghe thấy tiếng nói ảo, thấy kẻ trộm đang ẩn nấp đâu đó, thấy yêu tinh đang xuất hiện hoặc có ai đang đuổi đánh mình… Trong trạng thái hoang tưởng cực độ, người nghiện sẽ làm ra những điều mà bình thường họ không dám làm như đập phá, chém giết. Có thể nói, bất an từ người loạn thần do sử dụng ma túy gây ra đang là nỗi ám ảnh với nhiều người…

Các bác sĩ cho biết, phục hồi nhân cách, sức khỏe cho người nghiện ma túy đá phải mất một thời gian dài và có một số tổn thương não khó có thể hồi phục hoàn toàn. Từ những khuyến cáo trên, các bạn trẻ hãy cảnh giác với ma túy, đặc biệt là ma túy đá. Đừng vì một phút ham vui, chứng tỏ “đẳng cấp” mà trở thành người loạn thần, mất trí, phạm tội.

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