Giải mã về “Huyền thoại ngoại cảm Việt Nam” Phan Thị Bích Hằng

Trong giới “ngoại cảm” nước ta, nổi tiếng và tai tiếng nhất là Phan Thị Bích Hằng, người từng được tung hô là “huyền thoại ngoại cảm Việt Nam”. “Huyền thoại” được bắt đầu với việc đi tìm hài cốt em gái Giáo sư Trần Ph., người từng giữ trọng trách trong Chính phủ những năm 1980. Chi tiết lớp lang của sự vụ đã được giáo sư kể rõ trên các phương tiện thông tin đại chúng, và chúng đã gây ấn tượng mạnh đến mức ông đề nghị thành lập một viện nghiên cứu về linh hồn (!), với giả định rằng, nếu hồn có thật thì không ai dám làm điều ác nữa, vì thông qua nhà ngoại cảm, hồn sẽ “mách” ngay với các cơ quan pháp luật!

Với một người có kiến thức tối thiểu về sinh học và có tư duy phản biện lành mạnh, xem đó là một đề nghị quá lạc hậu về mặt nhận thức (khoa học đã bác bỏ sự tồn tại của linh hồn từ năm 1828) và rất nực cười về mặt thực tiễn (nếu thế thì nên giải tán cơ quan điều tra trong ngành công an cho rồi!).

Tôi xin hỏi Bích Hằng và giới ngoại cảm Việt Nam rằng, các vị ở đâu trong vụ án nhà báo Hoàng Hùng (Báo Người Lao Động) bị đốt? Tại sao các vị cứ im như thóc trong “kỳ án vườn mít”, khi Lê Bá Mai hai lần bị tuyên tử hình, một lần được tuyên vô tội, mới nhất lại bị tuyên chung thân, mà cả hai phía buộc tội và bị can đều kháng án (Viện Kiểm sát muốn án tử hình; bị cáo thì muốn tuyên vô tội)?

Theo nhà vật lý lừng danh bị tật nguyền Stephen Hawking:
Không có linh hồn hoặc kiếp sau

Rồi vụ chiếc xe khách bị cuốn trôi tại Nghi Xuân trong vụ lũ lịch sử 2010, rốt cục chân lý thuộc về Bích Hằng và Nguyễn Văn Liên (nói xe trôi mấy cây số tới tận cầu Bến Thủy) hay thuộc về những người dân tốt bụng, tuy không có khả năng ngoại cảm, nhưng có tư duy lành mạnh (suy luận chính xác rằng xe rất nặng nên không thể trôi xa khỏi nơi bị chìm vài ba trăm mét)? Và tại sao Bích Hằng toàn “giúp” các gia đình liệt sĩ ít hiểu biết về lĩnh vực dị thường và đang tuyệt vọng trong việc tìm kiếm hài cốt người thân, mà cứ lẩn trốn khi phóng viên tìm gặp để phỏng vấn năm 2007, khi chuyên trang VieTimes của Vietnamnet mở chiến dịch tấn công “ngoại cảm tìm mộ”?

Muốn biết Bích Hằng “gọi vong” như thế nào, cần làm rõ bốn vấn đề: 1) Linh hồn có thật hay không?; 2) Tại sao nhà ngoại cảm tìm được mộ?; 3) Tại sao ta dễ tin trò lừa gạt của giới ngoại cảm?; 4) Có thể kiểm tra một nhà ngoại cảm như thế nào?

Câu hỏi số 1: Có linh hồn hay không?

Năm 2010, tôi từng tiến hành một thăm dò nhỏ với sinh viên năm thứ nhất thuộc Trường Đại học Y khoa Phạm Ngọc Thạch TP.Hồ Chí Minh. Kết quả khoảng 85% số sinh viên tin linh hồn có thật, 10% không tin và 5% có ý kiến khác. Kết quả đó phù hợp với những thăm dò chính thức trên thế giới. Và cho dù tin hay không tin thì không một sinh viên nào định nghĩa được linh hồn, cho thấy thực tế thú vị là ta có thể tin một quan niệm mà ta chưa hiểu!

Hầu hết các nền văn hóa và các tôn giáo đều công nhận linh hồn. Nhà tư tưởng vĩ đại nhất thời cổ đại Aristotle không tin phụ nữ có linh hồn, chí ít là có chất lượng như nam giới (!). Thú vật có linh hồn hay không cũng là đề tài gây tranh cãi (một truyện cười kể rằng giới triết học chia thành hai phe, ai nuôi chó thì tin chó có linh hồn, ai không nuôi thì phản bác!). Bào thai có linh hồn hay không, cũng là một bài toán nan giải. Và cần nhấn mạnh rằng, không phải tôn giáo nào cũng công nhận linh hồn.

Vậy linh hồn là gì? Dẫn theo nhà vật lý Crick lừng danh, đoạt giải Nobel về cấu trúc ADN, trong cuốn Giả thuyết ngạc nhiên: Tìm kiếm khoa học về bản chất linh hồn, 1994, tôi xin đưa ra định nghĩa: “Linh hồn là vật sống không cơ thể, có lý trí và ý chí tự do”. Nếu quan niệm như vậy thì không thể có linh hồn được, vì như tôi đã viết trong bài Có ma hay không?, hồn và xác không thể tách rời nhau, do cặp phạm trù cấu trúc – chức năng trong sinh học.

Bạn đọc có thể khó hiểu về chuyện “hồn” không thể thoát “xác”. Tuy nhiên có thể hình dung được bản chất của vấn đề nếu so sánh với  bài toán trí tuệ nhân tạo, tức trí tuệ bên trong các máy tính. Nhà khoa học tật nguyền Stephen Hawking, phát ngôn viên của khoa học hiện đại, cho rằng: “Tôi quan niệm bộ não như máy tính vậy. Khi máy tính hư hỏng thì toàn bộ hoạt động của nó cũng bị mất đi. Không có linh hồn hoặc kiếp sau của một cái máy tính”.

Nói cách khác, ta không thể thấy thực tế ảo, trong vai trò “hồn”, tồn tại ngoài máy tính, trong vai trò “xác”. Tôi rất thích một hình ảnh trực quan; đó là màn hình tivi khi mất điện. Khi đó mọi hình ảnh, âm thanh, hành động, cảm xúc, tư duy… của các nhân vật đều bị mất một cách đột ngột. Do đó không thể có linh hồn với tư cách một tồn tại sau cái chết của cơ thể được.

Nói cách khác, khoa học hiện đại bác bỏ quan niệm về linh hồn bất tử. Và như vậy, tuyên bố của giới ngoại cảm về việc tìm được mộ nhờ “gọi vong” chỉ là sự lừa gạt không hơn không kém.

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