Đông Nam Á: mafia kiếm 100 tỷ USD/năm nhờ buôn bán phi pháp

Đầu tháng 3 vừa qua, cơ quan chức năng Malaysia đã thu giữ gần 160kg ngà voi trị giá 400.000 USD tại sân bay quốc tế Kuala Lumpur trong 2 vụ khác nhau. Nhiều lô ma túy khủng cũng được phát hiện tại Myanmar…

Theo một báo cáo mới nhất của Liên hợp quốc (LHQ), các mạng lưới tội phạm xuyên biên giới ngày càng được kết nối chặt chẽ hơn và hoạt động mạnh mẽ hơn tại khu vực Đông Nam Á – nơi tiến trình hội nhập kinh tế khu vực đang tạo điều kiện thuận lợi cho việc gia tăng các vụ phạm tội. Cơ quan LHQ về chống ma túy và tội phạm (UNODC) nhận định rằng, trong những năm gần đây, mạng lưới tội phạm xuyên quốc gia đã tăng nhanh trong vùng, với nhiều hình thức khác nhau như buôn người, ma túy, làm hàng giả, buôn lậu gỗ, động vật…

Bản báo cáo của LHQ cho hay, lợi nhuận thu được từ các vụ buôn bán bất hợp pháp kể trên còn cao hơn cả thu nhập quốc dân của 3 nước Lào, Myanmar và Campuchia cộng lại. Theo ước tính, “doanh thu” từ các hoạt động buôn bán phạm pháp lên đến 100 tỷ USD/năm. Điều này đã gây nên tình trạng bất ổn định cho các quốc gia và nền kinh tế của họ. Đồng thời cũng là nguyên nhân khiến nạn tham nhũng tràn lan. Theo ông Jeremy Douglas, đại điện của LHQ tại Đông Nam Á, đã đến lúc lãnh đạo các quốc gia thành viên ASEAN phải gắn liền vấn đề hội nhập kinh tế với các vấn đề an ninh.

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Cảnh sát Thái Lan bắt giữ lô ma túy khủng.

Buôn bán ma túy tại khu vực Đông Nam Á hiện đang phát triển mạnh. LHQ nhận định rằng, việc giảm bớt các trạm kiểm tra ở biên giới và cải thiện cơ sở hạ tầng đã tạo ra nhiều cơ hội thuận lợi cho bọn buôn lậu.

Lực lượng chống ma túy của Myanmar hôm 18-3 công bố, đã phát hiện và thu giữ số lượng lớn heroin và methamphetamine có trị giá hơn 40 triệu USD. Ma túy đã được tìm thấy trong một chiếc xe container tại một khu công nghiệp ở Mandalay, bao gồm: 82kg methamphetamine, 24kg heroin, 15kg thuốc phiện và 6,8 triệu viên ma túy tổng hợp. Tổng trị giá số ma túy bị thu giữ lên đến 37 tỷ kyats (40,5 triệu USD). Đây là vụ bắt giữ lớn nhất kể từ năm 2016 và đến nay các nghi phạm chính vẫn chưa bị bắt, một quan chức cảnh sát cao cấp thuộc Đội chống ma túy ở Naypyidaw đã cho phóng viên của hãng AFP biết như vậy.

Myanmar nằm ở trung tâm khu vực Tam giác vàng nổi tiếng cùng với các nước Thái Lan và Lào. Khu vực này đã và đang là nơi sản xuất ma túy lớn nhất thế giới trong nhiều thập kỷ qua. Myanmar cũng là nơi sản xuất thuốc phiện lớn thứ hai trên thế giới sau Afghanistan và nay, các băng đảng ma túy ở Myanmar đang tăng cường sản xuất ma túy tổng hợp dạng viên.

Theo Văn phòng LHQ về ma túy và tội phạm, ma túy đá đã chiếm lĩnh thị trường ma túy tổng hợp toàn cầu và đang phát triển rộng ở Đông Nam Á và Đông Á. Vào tháng bảy năm ngoái, Myanmar cũng đã bắt giữ số lượng lớn ma túy tổng hợp, có trị giá hơn 134 triệu USD từ một chiếc xe container tư nhân ở miền bắc Yangon.

Về khai thác gỗ lậu, cơ chế quản lý yếu kém đã tạo cơ hội cho bọn tội phạm có thể kiếm được rất nhiều lợi nhuận mà lại ít gặp rủi ro. Ước tính 30% – 40% lượng gỗ xuất khẩu của Đông Nam Á đến từ nguồn khai thác bất hợp pháp. Đường biển cũng là một cách rất đơn giản để vận chuyển kim loại bất hợp pháp và thuốc men.

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Tội phạm buôn người vào Đông Nam Á.

Báo cáo LHQ chỉ rõ, mỗi năm có hơn 500 triệu container được vận chuyển trong vùng, nhưng chỉ có 2% trong số đó bị kiểm tra. Trong khi đó, nạn buôn người ở Đông Nam Á cũng diễn biến rất phức tạp. Hàng ngàn người di cư, chủ yếu từ phía Tây Myanmar và Bangladesh, ước mơ tìm được công ăn việc làm ở các quốc gia giàu có hơn ở Đông Nam Á đã trở thành nạn nhân của các tổ chức buôn người. Họ bị đường dây buôn người giam giữ nhiều tháng, có khi hằng năm, trong những lán trại thô sơ, bị đánh đập, bị bỏ đói cho đến khi thân nhân nộp đủ tiền chuộc mạng.

Theo tổ chức nhân quyền Freeland, mỗi chiếc tàu chở 400 người mang về cho đường dây tội phạm 800.000 USD. Tổ chức phi chính phủ Fortify thì cho hay chỉ trong giai đoạn từ 2013-2015, số tiền từ hoạt động buôn người của các tổ chức tội phạm tại Đông Nam Á đã lên đến 250 triệu USD.

Ông Douglas nhận định, các nước trong khu vực đang cho xây dựng những con đường hoành tráng, lắp đặt các cơ sở hạ tầng mới và nhận thấy rằng, những hoạt động giao thương của họ đang tăng 10% – 20%/năm nhưng lại không có các giải pháp để bảo vệ. Theo đại diện của LHQ, nếu các nước không bắt đầu ngay từ bây giờ để thiết lập các trạm kiểm tra hải quan và các hệ thống cảnh sát thì các nước nghèo trong khu vực sẽ phải gánh chịu các hậu quả vô cùng nặng nề hơn cả.

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  • May 17, 2019 at 1:15 am
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  • May 20, 2019 at 2:08 pm
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