Cuộc chiến ma túy tàn khốc tại Trung Mỹ (Kỳ 1)

Là cửa ngõ đi vào thị trường Hoa Kỳ khổng lồ, với đường biên giới dài trên 3.000km, Mexico trở thành hang ổ của các băng đảng buôn lậu ma túy. Tổng thống Calderon khai chiến với chúng triệt để và huy động đến cả quân đội. Nhưng sự trả đũa của các “ông trùm” cũng tàn khốc tương đương.

14d-1669

Buôn lậu và cảnh sát đụng độ nhau tại Tijuana ngày 17-1-2008 khiến cảnh sát phải di dời một trường mẫu giáo đi nơi khác

Mafia Mexico không tàn lụi mà còn mạnh hơn bao giờ hết, khi khai thác khe hở tham nhũng của chính quyền và dùng thủ đoạn khủng bố người dân. Hàng ngàn người chết và cuộc sống tại Mexico nghẹt thở chưa từng thấy… Năm 2008, buôn lậu ma túy đã trở thành đề tài chính của xứ Mexico. Người ta không chỉ kể cho nhau nghe những cuộc chiến ngoạn mục đọc được từ báo chí, mà còn truyền miệng những giai thoại ly kỳ. Chẳng hạn: Mày có nhớ thằng Juan Alberto, con trai bà Perez (hay Gutierz, Lopez…)? Nó mới bị giết trong tuần rồi sau khi bị đánh đập thê thảm. Bây giờ tao mới hiểu vì sao hắn thường xuyên đi Las Vegas… Và tất cả những câu chuyện nhỏ này đúc kết lại thành câu chuyện lớn của cả nước. Ở vùng nông thôn, nông dân kể về bạo động, giết chóc, chuyện lạm quyền của quan chức, can thiệp của quân đội và những vụ mất tích. Tại các thành phố giáp biên giới với Hoa Kỳ, người ta biết rõ lối sống sang trọng và thái độ “chảnh chọe” của bọn trùm buôn lậu ma túy. Những trận mua vui bạt mạng và các căn nhà khoét lỗ châu mai để tử thủ giống như pháo đài của chúng.
Chiến lược theo đuổi của Tổng thống Felipe Calderon trong cuộc chiến chống ma túy là nguồn gốc của bạo động khủng khiếp diễn ra trên toàn cõi Mexico hiện nay. Ông tập trung quân đội và toàn lực quốc gia đàn áp những nơi có “truyền thống” buôn lậu ma túy từ lâu. Thế mà với hơn 500 nhân mạng mất đi trong 8 tháng vừa qua, cũng không giải phóng được phần đất nào khỏi tay buôn lậu. Trái lại, bạo động còn lan sang các tỉnh khác, nơi các tập đoàn ma túy thành lập những pháo đài mới.

Nhờ vào các liên minh mới, những tổ chức tội ác này đã gia tăng hoạt động và chứng tỏ sức mạnh của mình cũng không thua kém chính phủ. Đến nỗi nhà cầm quyền phải quyết định trang bị thêm cho cảnh sát xe bọc thép để sử dụng trong các chiến dịch truy quét.

Theo ước tính của LHQ, doanh số ma túy tại Mexico lên đến 300 tỉ USD/năm, thuộc loại cao nhất thế giới. Chính phủ phải đối đầu với những tổ chức bạo động và hoàn hảo hơn trước đây rất nhiều. Nhà nghiên cứu Eduardo Buscaglia, thuộc Viện Kỹ thuật tự động Mexico, giải thích rằng: Vì các chính sách xã hội bị bỏ qua, các tổ chức buôn lậu ma túy gây ảnh hưởng đến đời sống chính trị tại nhiều vùng trong nước, nơi mà chính phủ Liên bang không thể làm gì được do thiếu ngân sách triền miên. Đối với chuyên gia an ninh đã từng nghiên cứu các tổ chức tội ác tại 107 quốc gia này thì chính phủ Mexico đeo đuổi chính sách ngăn chặn bằng sức mạnh quân đội, trong lúc các tập đoàn ma túy lại phát triển thế lực bằng cách tài trợ tiền bạc cho các cuộc vận động tranh cử chức vụ thị trưởng, đại biểu quốc hội, các thống đốc bang… Chúng sẽ không dừng lại trước khi chiếm được toàn bộ chính quyền.

Ông nói tiếp: Mexico phạm phải sai lầm nghiêm trọng khi tiến hành chống tội phạm chỉ bằng cảnh sát và quân đội. Tại một số quốc gia, người ta chỉ chống tội phạm có tổ chức bằng cách tấn công vào đầu não cùng bộ phận vũ trang của nó mà không đánh vào mối quan hệ tài chính và sự thân thuộc giữa chúng với các công ty bình phong và giới chính trị gia, cũng không đánh vào mạng lưới tham nhũng và ô dù chính trị của chúng. Các quốc gia làm như thế cuối cùng chỉ gây thêm bạo loạn.

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