200 băng nhóm tín dụng đen bị đưa vào tầm ngắm

Trót vay tiền với lãi suất cao song không có khả năng trả, nhiều người sống trong cảnh vất vưởng, sợ hãi.22

Do cần tiền phát triển công ty sản xuất nước giải khát, tháng 11/2017, anh Nguyễn Văn Thanh (41 tuổi, Gia Lâm, Hà Nội) được chủ nhà trọ giới thiệu đến người đàn ông tên Trình để vay tiền. Anh vay hai đợt, tổng cộng 1,1 tỷ đồng với lãi suất 4-9% một tháng.

Bốn tháng sau không trả được đủ lãi, Thanh bị áp mức lãi suất 24%/tháng (tương đương 8.000 đồng/một triệu đồng/ngày). Đến tháng 4/2018, Thanh phải trả tổng cộng 350 triệu đồng tiền lãi. Không thể gồng mình lo tiếp, anh đề xuất trả dần cả gốc và lãi sau vài tháng song không được chấp thuận.

Những ngày sau đó, anh cùng vợ và hai con nhỏ liên tục bị nhóm người lạ mặt đến uy hiếp. Từ tháng 7 đến 10/2018, nhiều lần anh Thanh bị gọi điện thoại “đe doạ giết cả nhà”.

Ngày 12/10/2018, anh bị một nhóm người đổ mắm tôm chảy kín nhà và tháo mất hai chiếc camera giám sát. Chỉ một ngày sau đó, khi cả gia đình anh Thanh đang ngủ, một nhóm thanh niên bặm trợn kéo đến khóa trái cửa, nhỏ keo dán sắt vào các ổ khóa để “nhốt” gia đình.

Vẫn chưa thể trả nợ vì số tiền lên quá lớn, anh đành đưa vợ con về quê lánh nạn. Cho rằng “đây là bài học nhớ đời không bao giờ quên”, anh nói sẽ cố kiếm tiền trả nợ để thoát khỏi cơn ác mộng. Anh mong nhiều người sẽ tỉnh táo hơn khi vay vốn kinh doanh để không lâm vào “bi kịch như mình”.

Công an xã Cổ Bi (huyện Gia Lâm) cho biết đã nhận được đơn trình báo của anh Thanh. Qua xác minh thấy vụ việc có dấu hiệu phức tạp, hồ sơ được chuyển lên cấp trên và Công an huyện Gia Lâm đang thụ lý giải quyết theo thẩm quyền.

Quảng cáo cho vay tiền dán khắp nơi. Ảnh: Phạm Dự.

Mở công ty xây dựng song chưa đầy một năm đã “cạn vốn”, anh Dũng (quê Thái Nguyên) cũng phải nhờ đến sự trợ giúp của một công ty tài chính trên địa bàn. Là chỗ quen biết nên anh không phải thế chấp, chỉ viết biên nhận vay 100 triệu đồng với lãi suất 3.000 đồng/triệu đồng/ngày.

Theo anh Dũng, giấy vay nợ không ghi lãi mà chỉ ghi số tiền vay kèm theo dòng chữ “nếu không trả đúng hẹn sẽ phải chịu theo chế tài xử lý riêng của công ty”. Tuy nhiên, anh phải nói về số tiền vay, lãi, ngày trả và các giao kèo khác để chủ nợ ghi âm làm bằng chứng.

Sau ba tháng, anh Dũng thấy không có khả năng chi trả nên được chủ nợ gợi ý bốc họ để vừa có tiền vốn, vừa có tiền trả lãi. Anh Dũng đồng bốc họ 30 triệu đồng. Do chỉ được nhận về 24 triệu và mỗi ngày phải trả góp 600.000 đồng nên chưa đầy một tháng anh đã “cạn sạch tiền”.

Những tháng sau đó, anh liên tục bị chủ nợ gọi điện đe dọa yêu cầu trả tiền. Lần lượt từng người trong gia đình cũng bị gây sức ép. “Có lần vợ tôi đưa con đi học bị chúng bám theo và ném trứng thối giữa cổng trường”, anh Dũng nói và cho hay con trai anh sau đó khóc, đòi nghỉ học vì sợ hãi.

Hơn 10 thanh niên bặm trợn còn đến nhà anh lấy xe máy, đồ đạc. Do anh vẫn không đủ tiền, cứ ba ngày bọn chúng lại kéo chục người đến ăn nằm, bật nhạc mạnh quậy phá ầm ĩ trong nhà. Không chịu nổi áp lực, Dũng bán căn nhà đang sinh sống để trả hơn 200 triệu đồng (cả gốc và lãi) cho công ty hỗ trợ tài chính. Anh cùng vợ con sau đó vào Nam làm lại sự nghiệp.

200 băng nhóm tín dụng đen bị đưa vào tầm ngắm

Luật sư Phạm Thanh Bình cho hay, theo điều 474 Bộ luật dân sự, khi đến hạn, người vay có nghĩa vụ trả lại số tiền đã vay (tiền gốc và tiền lãi – nếu có thỏa thuận). Nếu người vay tiền có hành vi gian dối ngay từ khi thực hiện giao dịch hoặc có hành vi tẩu tán tài sản, bỏ trốn… nhằm chiếm đoạt tài sản hoặc sử dụng khoản tiền vay vào mục đích bất hợp pháp dẫn đến không có khả năng trả thì hành vi của người đó có dấu hiệu tội phạm Lừa đảo chiếm đoạt tài sản hoặc Lạm dụng tín nhiệm chiếm đoạt tài sản.

Tuy nhiên, người cho vay tiền cũng không được đòi nợ theo kiểu “xã hội đen”. Người tự mình đòi nợ hoặc thuê đòi nợ kiểu “xã hội đen” có thể phải chịu trách nhiệm hình sự về tội Cướp tài sản hoặc tội Cưỡng đoạt tài sản.

Theo Bộ Công an, bốn năm gần đây toàn quốc xảy ra hơn 7.600 vụ phạm tội liên quan đến hoạt động tín dụng đen như giết người (56 vụ), cố ý gây thương tích (398 vụ), cướp tài sản (629 vụ), cưỡng đoạt tài sản (836 vụ), hủy hoại tài sản (165 vụ)… Trong đó, khoảng 170 vụ lừa đảo liên quan đến việc huy động vốn lãi suất cao với số tiền chiếm đoạt đến nghìn tỷ đồng.

Trong báo cáo mới đây của Bộ Công an, cảnh sát đã rà dựng và đang quản lý hơn 200 băng nhóm với gần 2.000 người hoạt động có tổ chức về cho vay lãi nặng, đòi nợ thuê. Các băng nhóm tín dụng đen thường hoạt động dưới vỏ bọc hợp pháp của các cơ sở kinh doanh tài chính, công ty, doanh nghiệp.

Điều 201 Bộ luật Hình sự năm 2015 quy định, trong giao dịch dân sự, người nào cho vay với lãi suất gấp năm lần mức lãi suất cao nhất quy định trong Bộ luật dân sự (hiện là 20%/năm), thu lợi bất chính từ 30 đến dưới 100 triệu đồng… sẽ bị phạt tiền từ 50 đến 200 triệu đồng hoặc phạt cải tạo không giam giữ đến ba năm.

Trường hợp phạm tội thu lợi bất chính từ 100 triệu đồng trở lên sẽ bị phạt tiền từ 200 triệu đến một tỷ đồng hoặc phạt tù từ sáu tháng đến ba năm.

Trường hợp việc cho vay lãi nặng chưa đến mức truy cứu trách nhiệm hình sự có thể bị phạt hành chính theo quy định tại Điều 11 Nghị định 167/2013/NĐ-CP với mức phạt từ 5 đến 15 triệu đồng.

Phạm Dự

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